Online Disinformation in Europe – A Study on Ethical Standards, Involved Political Interests and Policy Recommendations

As online disinformation constitutes a crucial problem for democratic societies, it becomes clear that the phenomenon is highly complex and multidimensional. The study mapps the involved actors and the overall landscape and presents a policy framework, providing a useful tool for researchers and policy makers.

The study, commissioned by the Left in the European Parliament, primarily focused on the state of journalistic authorities and standards and the analysis of disinformation in France, Germany, Greece, Italy and Spain. Regarding the topics, it has drawn particular attention to the spread of disinformation on Covid-19, migration, and climate change.

Click here to read the full study (website of The Left in the European Parliament, formerly GUE/NGL).

Online Disinformation in Europe. A Study on Ethical Standards, Involved Political Interests and Policy Recommendations.
The Left in the European Parliament
173 pages

Table of Contents


Disinformation background
Objectives of the study
Key Findings
Outline of the study

Ethical standards in journalism

Journalistic codes of ethical conduct – a summary of main principies
Implications and challenges of compliance with ethical conduct

Political interests served

General disinformations topics
Political interests & disinformation in France
Political interests & disinformation in Germany
Political interests & disinformation in Greece
Political interests & disinformation in Italy
Political interests & disinformation in Spain

Policy recommendations

The disinformation ecosystem
Proposed policy recommendation frameworks for combating disinformation in Europe and beyond
Analysis and synthesis of policy recommendations for combating disinformation
Our recommendations


Annexes I – Codes of Conduct – Europe
Annexes II – Codes of Conduct – National